Mastering the Project Management Life Cycle in Software Development
- what is project management life cycle
- what tools and documents will come in handy in managing a project
- what duties a project manager is supposed to adopt
- what challenges occur in the project management flow
- how to prevent and tackle the project management issues.
Table of Contents
The five stages of project management life cycle
An effective project management strategy necessarily involves decomposing the process into distinct and manageable stages or phases: each with its specific objectives and outcomes. This breakdown strategy ensures the overall quality of the project by facilitating control over each stage of the project. Termed as the project life cycle, these phases typically encompass initiation, planning, execution, and closure.
While some models may include one more phase known as monitoring and control, thus forming a total of five stages of project management. As per our approach, we do not treat it as a standalone stage, for monitoring and control mechanisms are woven into each of the preceding phases to maintain focus and timely identify and address any emerging issues. This seamless integration of monitoring into a project’s delivery phases adds to the overall performance and efficiency. Next, we are going to give the key phases of the project life cycle a closer look.
Denoting the initial stage of the project’s life cycle as critical would not be an overstatement. Transformation of abstract concepts into a set of tangible goals is primarily performed via project delineation by defining its goals, scope, and necessary resources, including the requisite team composition for the execution stage of the project management flow.
The key focus of this pivotal stage lies in elucidating stakeholders’ expectations and precisely outlining the project’s intended accomplishments. A clear understanding of the objectives and intentions is of critical importance. Without this clarity, the project faces the risk of falling short of its ultimate goals and failing to meet stakeholder expectations.
Steps that are usually taken at the initiation stage:
- identifying the project’s goals, objectives, and scope;
- formulating the purpose of the project;
- eliciting the goal and desired outcomes of the project from the stakeholders;
- exploring the project requirements, scope, risks and benefits;
- establishing project goals using the SMART criteria;
- confirming resources and constraints: within both the budget and the timeline;
- defining team composition in size and qualification;
- determining stakeholders that will be involved throughout the project’s lifetime;
- preparing a project proposal and project charter;
- drafting and signing documents, such as non-disclosure agreements (NDAs);
- approving the project’s objectives, scope, budget, and timeline with stakeholders.
Tools and documents that are used at the initiation stage:
- Project proposal
The document helps establish a project’s objectives, key dates, requirements, and goals, as well as ensures that all involved entities agree on an initial project planning framework.
- Project charter
As the final document, it delves into the key details of the project required to arrive at its goals. Potential risks, benefits, and constraints are also calculated and included.
- Stakeholder register
The document renders essential information about the project’s stakeholders: individuals, groups and entities interested in the project.
- Communication strategy matrix
The tool is handy for picking the best-suiting communication strategy for each stakeholder.
- RACI matrix/chart
A useful function for software project management consists in prescribing roles and responsibilities for tasks and deliverables.
In this stage, the results are manifested in the project’s objectives, aligned with the stakeholders’ vision, and stakeholder approvals, which are prerequisites for the subsequent phases. Aside from those, the phase outputs feature documentation concerning the project’s requirements, such as the business case, as well as the preliminary assessments of the time and resources essential for project completion, encapsulated in the project charter.
Without clearly defined goals or objectives, the initiation phase can develop into disorganized workflows, with team members, who are propped up by unrealistic expectations, moving in divergent directions alongside the soaring risk of frustration and scope creep. Lest this scenario should come into play, establishing a cohesive plan which ensures a unified understanding of the project’s trajectory, is a must at the very first stage of the project delivery phases.
Following the project initiation and preceding the project execution, project planning is the second phase in the life cycle of project management. The cornerstone of this phase comprises establishing clear project goals, allocating necessary resources, and charting a comprehensive project schedule. The measures we take to complete the aforementioned foci result in a project plan, compiled to serve as a repository of crucial details, encompassing information on budgets, timelines, milestones, scope, due dates, and project deliverables. Simultaneously, this phase requires a meticulous assessment and prediction of potential project management challenges.
Steps that are usually taken at the planning stage:
- identifying milestones that lead to goal achievement;
- assigning project participants’ roles and responsibilities;
- drafting a schedule for milestones, with estimations and potential time buffers;
- defining change processes;
- working out the means and frequency of team member (and stakeholder) communication;
- creating a risk register for risk assessment and management;
- holding a kick-off meeting to begin the project execution.
Tools and documents that are used at the planning stage:
- Scope statement
All elements of a project’s scope, such as assumptions, project requirements, and acceptance criteria, are identified within this document. The project scope statement serves as a reference tool for both stakeholders and team members, providing a benchmark against which project success can be assessed.
- Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Commonly recognized as the WBS, this tool for project managers facilitates a comprehensive breakdown of the project scope. Functioning as a diagram, the WBS helps visualize sets of tasks, subtasks, and deliverables, thus providing a clear roadmap for the project’s successful completion.
- Gantt chart
As a widely adopted graphical representation of a project schedule, this bar chart tool conveniently illustrates the start and finish dates of a project’s tasks along with their dependencies.
- Critical Path Method (CPM)
Unlike the previously mentioned tool, this one breaks down a sizable project into individual work tasks, visually represented on a flowchart. The CPM approach determines the most efficient timeframe for task completion.
- Communication plan
It is a structured outline identifying the means and recipients of the project’s crucial data communication. The primary objective of the communication plan is to clearly define the recipients, timing and means of the project-related notifications, which ensures effective communication throughout the project life cycle.
- Risk register
Functioning as a detailed compilation of challenges in project management, encompassing risks and constraints tied to the project, the list includes their probability, potential impact, risk level, as well as corresponding mitigation plans, aimed to address key project management issues.
Upon completing the planning phase of a project’s life cycle, one is to expect the following outcomes: a comprehensive project plan, a communication plan for the project, a baseline budget, project scheduling, a scope document, and delineated individual project goals and objectives.
Project execution and monitoring
With the planning phase concluded, engagement in the actual work commences. So as to bring the devised plans to life, project managers arrange streamlined workflows, task assignments, and vigilant progress monitoring to uphold the established schedule. Besides orchestrating the workflow, it is the project manager’s responsibility to ensure effective communication and collaboration between team members and project stakeholders.
Since we at Romexsoft do not separate monitoring and control among the phases of the project management life cycle, instead we prioritize vigilant progress monitoring against the established plan. To allow for taking timely corrective actions, such as accommodating the schedule due to unforeseen delays, monitoring is to occur constantly throughout the whole project delivery process. What helps project managers track and assess progress is using key performance indicators (KPIs), gauging whether the project is adhering to both schedule and budgetary constraints.
Steps that are usually taken at the execution stage:
- project resources allocation and management;
- tasks entrustment and encouragement of team members to make decisions;
- organization of daily stand-up meetings of up to 15 minutes;
- project progress monitoring (with tools like GANTT or burndown charts);
- risk anticipation and mitigation measures;
- efforts and budget tracking;
- stakeholder progress communication;
- change implementation through change requests;
- quality monitoring;
- maintenance of team members’ motivation and milestone celebration;
- team-building activities execution.
Tools that are used at the execution stage of the project:
- Project Dashboard
As an all-embracing project tracking instrument, Project Dashboard allows for detailed cost, task and progress monitoring.
- Change requests
Designed to suggest modifications to a project’s scope or objectives, Change requests help document the necessary amendments.
- Burndown chart
An indispensable tool for planning, it is a graphical representation that dissects tasks into detailed levels, visualizing the remaining time.
- Risk matrix
Also known as the Risk Heatmap, this tool for anticipating risks in project management offers a visual aid for swiftly identifying threats that demand particular attention and those with the least level of risk.
Closing the project
The project closure phase signals the conclusion of the project following the final delivery. During this stage, the project manager assumes the responsibility of not only bringing the project to an end but also preparing essential documentation for the termination or completion of the contract.
As the concluding task in this final phase, a thorough project review is undertaken, resulting in a comprehensive report that addresses every facet of the work done. Meticulous as this approach is, it proves effective to instigate continuous improvement within the company. Another thing that contributes to enhancing overall productivity and team performance in future projects is a reflection meeting, which some teams choose to hold in order to analyze and learn from their experience.
Steps that are usually taken at the closing stage of the project:
- a project closeout report and project closeout checklist creation;
- communication to stakeholders on project completion;
- delivery of a detailed project completion report;
- formal closure through project sponsor sign-off;
- retrospective session and documentation of lessons learnt;
- project completion and team success celebration.
Project manager role and responsibilities during the project life cycle
Mirrored in the sequence of phases of the project management life cycle, the roles and responsibilities of a project manager change from stage to stage. Combining guidance, motivation, and team orchestration is essential in ensuring the successful completion of the project. As such, a proficient project manager should possess a holistic comprehension of project life cycles, adept communication skills, and the capacity to navigate and resolve an array of challenges that may surface.
Considering the list of the typical tasks at the project execution stage, a project manager bears the responsibility not only for the timely and budget-compliant implementation of projects but also for motivating and inspiring the team. The essentials of a project manager include critical thinking skills, enabling the manager to analyze and resolve emerging problems effectively, as well as refined communication skills, connected to providing top-notch customer service.
Listed below are key responsibilities commonly adopted by project managers.
- Communicating with stakeholders
Since a fundamental responsibility for a project manager is engaging in communication with stakeholders, proficient communication skills are a basis for establishing and sustaining stakeholder trust in providing regular updates on progress and being responsive to their requests and suggestions.
- Planning the project
Initiating the project typically involves a project manager collaborating with the client and stakeholders to agree on the project expectations and outline the anticipated deliverables. Project managers are also tasked with defining goals and milestones crucial for the project’s successful completion.
- Forming the team
Team assembly represents another significant aspect of a project manager’s responsibilities. It commonly involves recruiting team members, evaluating their soft and technical skills based on their designated roles, and effectively delegating duties.
- Motivating the team
Inspiring the team may seem a secondary facet of effective project management, while it is not only motivation that project managers maintain, but also challenges they help overcome so that the team meets the established objectives in due time and within the budget.
- Monitoring status and progress
Utilizing diverse tools (such as the previously mentioned WBS and Gantt charts) aids project managers in outlining tasks, estimating their completion times, and consistently monitoring task progress.
- Managing resources
Project managers need to diligently oversee the team’s resource utilization, taking into account devices, funds, and hours. A proficient project manager adeptly breaks down costs for each project phase and transparently communicates potential budget risks to relevant stakeholders.
- Solving problems
It is among the project manager’s duties to assess the risk probability, including obstacles, change requests, conflicts, and resource-related issues. They are supposed to strategically plan risk minimization and formulate responses should any project management issues arise.
Project management challenges you may face
It is undoubtedly a crucial responsibility in software development life cycle project management to proactively address challenges before they occur for the reason that throughout the project implementation, the team is likely to confront various obstacles that pose potential hindrances to the progress.
Since issues may emerge at any stage and undermine the scope of work executed, foreseeing potential challenges, formulating contingency plans, and proactively mitigating the risk of their occurrence, are among the most vital responsibilities of a project manager. The most widespread project management issues include the following risks:
- Lack of clarity and communication
Ambiguities in the project scopes or deadlines can generate a lot of misunderstandings among the sub-teams or between the team and the stakeholders. Those, in turn, result in budget overruns, significant delays and outcomes that deviate from the initially set intentions.
- Resource deficiency
Inadequately allocated resources can have manifold manifestations, such as insufficient time, low skills, limited budget, or a lack of tools. It is up to the project managers to identify and amass the necessary resources as early as in the initial stages of the project management flow. In the subsequent phases, though, PMs are supposed to conduct ongoing resource monitoring and maintain communication with the team regarding their utilization.
- Unclear goals
Obscure objectives may give rise to inappropriate outcomes. On the other hand, to complete the project successfully, a clear understanding of project goals has to be established. Primarily, this means setting both realistic and clearly articulated goals. The team relies on their project manager to realize how each completed task contributes to achieving these well-defined goals.
- Inadequate time frame
Inaccurate estimates, overly optimistic perspectives, or management pressure can cause project managers to set impractical time frames. Therefore, confronted with unrealistic time constraints, teams are compelled to compress their activities, potentially compromising the quality of their work. Consequently, the project’s outcome may fall short of stakeholders’ expectations.
- Inadequate risk management
Insufficient analysis of potential risks indubitably prompts shortcomings in the project plan, financial issues, or unforeseen variables. Failing to identify and address project-related risks typically paves the way for project failure.
- Scheduling conflicts
This scenario can unfold when a team is concurrently engaged in multiple sub-projects. Commencement of one project hingeing on completing another one is not an infrequent situation. An illustrative instance is the parallel work on UI design and development, where the outset of the development stage is contingent upon the approval of the UI design. As a consequence, one or more sub-projects may encounter challenges in efficiently allocating available resources.
- Skill gaps
At the project execution stage, the skills and competencies of team members may turn out to be insufficient to carry out the assigned tasks. This circumstance is commonly referred to as a skills gap which is directly linked to a gap between the initially established project objectives and the actual outcomes.
Project management tips and insights
Speaking of the field as complicated and multilayered as software development, a project’s effectiveness frequently relies on skilful orchestration of the project management life cycle (PMLC) rather than meticulous execution. In attempts to operate what is a project management life cycle, project managers find themselves in need of best practices that help streamline the project finalization. If it sounds relevant, keep reading this chapter to pick up the PM strategies and approaches that go beyond traditional methodologies.
What adds up to effective project completion encompasses:
- Breaking big tasks into small, achievable goals
Ensuring the success of a project, particularly in the realm of software development involving multiple teams, depends on breaking down large projects into small, achievable milestones. This approach facilitates the delegation of smaller sub-projects to different teams.
- Staying flexible/agile
Embracing agility brings about flexibility and creates space for adjustments and issue resolutions. An agile team excels in adapting to changes in projects characterized by shorter planning and implementation periods.
- Knowing your team
Investing effort and time into fostering cohesion among team members is a worthy venture. A deeper understanding of the team, required to establish closer relationships, also pays off in discerning individual skills, strengths, and weaknesses. This, in turn, enhances their ability to delegate and distribute tasks more effectively.
- Hiring people with the right skills
An effective project manager, beyond meticulously assessing a candidate’s competencies, should also focus on how well the candidate’s skills, such as learning agility, adaptability, and communication skills, align with the team dynamics. An individual showcasing flexibility, an open-minded approach, willingness to continuously learn and enhance their capabilities is a valuable contribution to any team.
- Giving the team a chance to express themselves
Each team member brings unique technical expertise gained from past projects. Thus, fostering a culture of knowledge sharing and creating platforms for expressing and exchanging ideas contributes to enhancing the project work the team is collectively working on.
- Managing documentation
Assuming that you will maintain the same team composition from the initiation to the completion of a project is a misconception. Long-term projects often experience staff turnover. Therefore, maintaining thorough documentation becomes a valuable resource for employees who may need reference points for specific functionalities. Documentation serves as a reliable tool for tracking all changes implemented throughout the project’s lifespan.
- Implementing automation where possible
Leveraging automation proves invaluable in managing routine tasks, allowing project managers to redirect their attention to more critical responsibilities that demand expertise. Contemporary software solutions offer assistance in resource planning, organizing a personal calendar based on workload, and efficiently tracking task progress.
- Managing your time effectively
Whether handling small tasks or complex projects, effective time management remains a project manager’s crucial asset. Such key strategies as crafting an efficient schedule, prioritizing tasks, and utilizing high-quality project management tools help to stay in control of your day and ensure nothing is overlooked.
- Maintaining work-life balance
When overseeing a project, particularly one that captivates your interest, maintaining a work-life balance is paramount. Overtime hours can impact your personal life, ultimately affecting your ability to stay focused throughout the project’s duration. Team members, stakeholders, and individuals in your personal life must be aware of your availability boundaries.
Integrating these tips into their approach enables project managers to elevate their decision-making, surmount challenges, and ultimately achieve the desired project outcomes. Essentially, project management tips function as a structured framework, offering actionable strategies and insights that empower project managers to deliver success.
Cultivating a continuous learning culture
Staying in the loop of the newest tools, languages, and frameworks is a basic necessity for development teams. In the ocean of rapid changes and breakthroughs, a culture of continuous learning becomes imperative to elevate project performance and maintain competitive standing by seamlessly integrating contemporary solutions.
Nurturing an environment that values ongoing learning is the only thing that can guarantee innovation and inventive problem-solving from within the team. The most resilient and effective solutions can spring from the commitment to continuous learning, and be honed by experts adept in the latest methodologies and tools, streamlining workflows, mitigating bottlenecks, and enhancing overall project timelines among many other vital sub-skills.
On a bit broader scale, dedication to continuous learning boosts the organization’s attractiveness to top-tier talents and provides a fruitful habitat for them to further refine their skills and put them to practical use.
To ensure ongoing growth and development, adopting a learning mindset is inevitable. This proactive and pragmatic approach to acquiring new expertise and adapting to changing circumstances empowers professionals to learn from challenges, build up flexibility and drive innovation.
Benefits of a learning mindset in project management
- Enhanced problem-solving prowess
A mindset geared towards continuous learning enhances problem-solving skills, which are indispensable for navigating unexpected challenges. Therefore, it spurs a practical culture of innovation by motivating developers to explore practical and innovative approaches to puzzling tasks.
- Increased operational efficiency
Continuous skill training gradually yet surely promotes project execution efficiency for teams’ productivity is a clear outcome of streamlined workflows and fine-tuned processes.
- Elevated employee satisfaction and retention
Team members view continuous learning as an investment in their professional development, which immediately influences their job satisfaction. So as to draw in, keep and stimulate high-caliber talent, organizations had better set maintaining ongoing learning as their priority.
- Adoption of emerging technologies
Continuous learning serves as a proactive measure against technological obsolescence, increasing the odds of the team’s keeping their competitive posture.
Steps to develop a learning mindset for you and your team
- Lead by example
Staying abreast of industry trends, honing skills and acquiring fresh knowledge, experimenting and trying out diverse viewpoints are just a few examples of expressing your commitment to perpetual learning that has a strong influence on your team as well. It is the openness that contributes to creating the atmosphere of a safe space required for admitting knowledge gaps and brainstorming possible solutions both individually and as a team. What enables others to openly seek self-improvement is the transparency of your own learning journey.
- Foster a culture of curiosity
You, as a project manager, have the authority and resources required to create the conditions for curiosity and inquisitiveness to be welcomed. Shaping the space where assumptions are questioned, responsibilities outside the listed duties are adopted, and challenges are seen as learning opportunities, takes much effort but in the end forms a growth-oriented mindset.
- Prioritize knowledge sharing
It is a good idea to initiate regular sessions for exchanging insights, discoveries, and lessons learned. Any format that suits your team members will do: be it weekly meetings or collaborative platforms. Promoting collaboration among team members, each with their own skill set, not only widens individual knowledge but also strengthens collective problem-solving.
- Set learning goals
In order to encourage and track progress, evaluate existing skills and identify areas for enhancement. Setting clear, specific, and attainable objectives that align with the team’s professional aspirations, business priorities, and emerging industry trends along with regular re-assessment and adjusting will do miracles in the long-term perspective.
- Diversify learning sources
Explore both formal educational paths, including courses, workshops, or certifications, to deepen your expertise in specific areas, as well as informal learning through various sources such as podcasts, blogs, and industry publications. The diversity of your approach enables you to stay updated on emerging trends and best practices beyond conventional educational channels.
- Encourage collaborative learning
Apart from the usual collective workshops and learning sessions centering around new technologies and industry insights, try promoting pair programming and peer learning initiatives to foster collaborative problem-solving, establishing a culture of shared responsibility for individual and team advancement.
- Provide learning resources
It proves beneficial to develop a centralized knowledge hub, housing learning resources, such as books, online courses, tutorials, and other pertinent materials, available to the entire team. Investigating subscription services or platforms providing a carefully curated array of industry-related content is a step in guaranteeing the team’s access to a varied selection of learning materials.
- Recognize and reward learning achievements
A recognition initiative for both individual and team accomplishments in learning is something few think of but it helps immensely to encourage the teams’ learning pursuits. Learning-focused activities can be incorporated into team-building exercises, such as gamified knowledge-sharing sessions or collaborative projects, driving a culture of continuous development.